This post is the third in a series about myths surrounding the origins of yoga. You can read Part I here on yoga in Ancient Egypt, and Part II here on the 5,000-year-old yoga myth.
I ended the last post in this series with the revelation that postural yoga as it is practiced today is not 2,500 years old, let alone 5,000 years old as many claim. But this raises the question, exactly how old is postural yoga? Where exactly do all these poses come from, and how did yoga become synonymous with acrobatic, physical practice? To understand the answer to these questions, it’s necessary to review a bit of history.
Traditional Hatha Yoga
The traditional practice of yoga most closely aligned with modern postural forms was hatha yoga, which flourished in India from the 13th century until its decline in the 18th. However, to say traditional hatha yoga and yoga today are the same is impossible. Historical texts in the hatha tradition do describe several asanas, however, there are relatively few included and, similar to the texts discussed in my last post, the focus is on seated postures rather than the more acrobatic, gymnast standing or inverted postures common now.
Other bodily practices that were part of traditional hatha yoga might be downright alarming to yogis today. These included: “(1) dhauti, or the cleansing of the stomach by means of swallowing a long, narrow strip of cloth; (2) basti, or ‘yoga enema’ effected by sucking water into the colon by means of an abdominal vacuum technique (uddiana bandha); (3) neti, or the cleaning of the nasal passages with water and/or cloth; and (4) trataka, or staring at a small mark or candle until the eyes water” (Singleton 2010:28).
When British rule in India began in 1773, hatha yogis were actually viewed negatively by both Westerners and Indians. Hatha yogis were associated with black magic, perverse sexuality (based in tantric philosophy), abject poverty, eccentric austerities, and disreputable, sometimes-violent behavior. This wasn’t simply prejudice, either. From the fifteenth century until the nineteenth century, highly organized bands of militarized yogis roamed Northern India, controlling trade routes and becoming so powerful that they were able to challenge the East India Company and British rule (39).
Yogi aesthetics from central India (Guttenberg Project)
The British government went so far as to ban wandering yogis and tried to promote more “acceptable” religious practices among Indians, namely meditative Hinduism common among the educated and upper classes. These policies were supported by wealthier Indians who hoped for reconciliation with British rule and found traditional hatha yogis disturbing at best. As the scope of colonial police powers grew in India, poor hatha yogis were increasingly demilitarized and forced to settle in urban areas where they often resorted to postural yogic showmanship and spectacle to earn money panhandling. As a result, physical hatha yoga practices became associated with the homeless and poor, and were considered by both the British and Indians “not only inferior but parasitic on other, worthier expressions of yoga” that foregrounded meditative traditions (43).
The Creation of a New Hatha Yoga
In the late 18th and early 19th century, the British began to pursue policies of conciliation towards the native culture of India. As a result of this policy, many Indian and European administrators, intellectuals, and public officials began supporting the creation of a new, modern India that combined the best of what modernity and the West had to offer, but in a traditional, Indian form. Years of colonial rule had resulted in numerous stereotypes of Indian effeminacy and degeneracy narratives that implied Indians were physically and racially degraded–in other words, inferior to whites. Re-appropriating hatha yoga became part of a larger project of Indian nation building and the construction of the new Indian man designed to combat these stereotypes.
Above: Swedish gymnastics being performed at the Stockholm Olympics in 1912
Above: Russian army (circa 1910) performing Swedish gymnastics as part of military calisthenics
At the time fitness and exercise regimes known as “physical culture” were quite popular in the West and, as a result of colonial influence, in India. Physical culture was based in body building practices, gymnastics (which at this point in history was male-dominated), and military calisthenics. Because of it’s emphasis on manliness and cultivating the body it was generally viewed as a way to regenerate moral and physical mettle of India and its people (read: men). Traditional hatha yoga practices were re-appropriated and combined with modern physical culture in an attempt to meld “indigenous” Indian exercises with more Western practices and ideals. Thus, a new, more aerobic and acrobatic version of yoga was born that was devoid of any of the negative associations of earlier centuries.
This new, reinvented form of yoga had more in common with body building, gymnastics, and military calisthenics than traditional yoga practices. But because it was combined with a few “acceptable” hatha yoga practices, and had the label “yoga” attached, it was seen as part of the cultural heritage of India and used to promote a new image of the modern, strong, and masculine Indian body as well as a modern, independent India. As such, modern postural yoga was created in direct opposition to the project and discourses of colonial empire, and cannot be separated from Colonialism.
Modern Postural Yoga
This means that modern postural yoga, and most of the poses we practice today, are only around 100 years old. One of the most influential figures in the development of modern yoga, T. Krishnamacharya (1888-1989), was deeply embedded in physical culture. His financial backer, the maharajah of Mysore, was a physical culture enthusiast, and many of the teachers he was connected to or the students he would later teach came from similar fitness backgrounds. The result was a new formulation of yoga that was a marriage of body building, gymnastics, military calisthenics, and those hatha yoga practices that were deemed acceptable. It was this new form of yoga that was taught to some of the most influential global yoga teachers of the 20th century: B.K.S. Iyengar, K. Pattabhi Jois, Indra Devi, and T.K.V. Desikacha. It was this new physically-orientated, acrobatic form that would later migrate to the West, a yoga nearly devoid of any spiritual or meditative practice.
Some of the poses or sequences we often think of as foundational to yoga today were only invented after 1930. Sun salutations, one of the most venerated yoga sequences, were invented in the 1930s and have more in common with military calisthenics and gymnastics than with yoga. On top of that, many of the inversions or arm balances we see today have only appeared in the past few decades. Often the use of sanskrit for these poses is intentional to make them seem like part of a cultural tradition of yoga, that, let’s face it, doesn’t really exist in the way most yogis believe. The idea that the poses we practice are part of a thousand year old tradition is completely false; the idea that they are even hundreds of years old is a myth.
So why do so many yogis believe in origin narratives of yoga that trace postural yoga to some ancient tradition? What purpose do these myths serve? And what are the implications of the true history of yoga for our practice? Does it mean modern yoga is “inauthentic?” I’ll explore these topics in my next post in this series!
If you are interested in learning more about this topic, I would highly suggest checking out Mark Singleton’s book Yoga Body: The Origins of Modern Posture as well as Joseph Alter’s work, including his book Yoga in Modern India: The Body Between Science and Philosophy. The following articles are also great:
Yoga’s Greater Truth (by Mark Singleton)
History of Modern Yoga Asana (by Ann Pizer)
Where Yoga Poses Come From (by Alanna Kaivalya): This is one of my favorites, the author wrote an entire book about the mythical origins of yoga poses and only after publication realized that many of the poses she wrote about were less than 100 years old… talk about origin myths!
19 thoughts on “The Origins of Yoga: Part III”
I’m just curious why it bothered you so much to achknowlegde yoga was practiced in Africa and these postures are found on the pyramid walls? Have you ever even been to see the artifacts for yourself or was your research done via google? , even with evidence in your face you went through measures to justify your distaste, you hate that you love something so much but it there was evidence of it in Africa so in order for you to fully accept it you needed to make your research as wordy as possible to discredit the source. When something has been reinvented it doesn’t make it original it makes it reinvented. Even though the lightbulb has been reinvented, redesigned for modern society, I would never discredit Albert Eistein. Until we respect the African Culture for what they contributed to society, stop trying to hide and plagiarize their truth and humbly achknowlege their culture the world will always be in disarray because the missing link to peace on earth is being suppressed. the ancestors are watching and I how they keep a close eye on you. Hotep
If we had enough evidence to actually argue that yoga originally came from Africa, I’d be fine supporting the idea. But the fact is there simply isn’t enough evidence to make that claim. A few pictures that look similar to poses (which, FYI, many poses didn’t exist and weren’t the focus of yoga until only the last 100 or so years) does not mean that yoga, as a philosophical and spiritual tradition that is diverse and very complex, originated in Africa. The human body can only move so many ways, and similar body practices to asana exist in many cultures. Does the fact that ballet shares some similar physical postures make it yoga? No. Is it possible yoga can be traced to Africa? I guess so. But as I said, there simply is not enough evidence to support this, and most arguments about it are focused primarily on asana practices, not yoga as a whole, which is problematic because asana has changed drastically in the last 150 years and become much more foregrounded than it ever was. The desire to make the claim that it’s possible to trace yoga back to Africa has more to do with current social circumstances and needs than it does actual historical research and archeological evidence. Culture is constantly shifting. But we can still trace cultural evolutions across time (given enough evidence). We can’t do this adequately in these cases, or the best we can do is trace how drastically they have changed because of processes like colonialization, imperialism, and capitalism.
Do you know from the past one month I am looking for the origin of yoga article and then today I found this amazing article. Glad to found this engaging content.
greetings. and your evidence that yoga originated in india comes from…?
Many textual sources and visual historical records suggest yoga, as it can be traced from modern practices back through time to earlier forms, originated in South Asia from a variety of diverse religious traditions that often had cross-influences on each other. We only have so many historical records though, so ultimately it’s a question mark going much further back in time beyond a couple thousand years, and even that data is limited and disproportionately reliant on textual sources or minimal visual records which are just a fraction of the actual practices that existed, given the widespread oral/physical yogic traditions. Knowing how culture diffuses in general, there were likely global influences in those earlier times too, but it’s impossible to know for sure beyond the historical moments that we have data for. At that point, we are into guesswork, and different folks have a lot of different ideas (including the idea that yoga originated in Egypt previously and then traveled to South Asia).
Did you confuse the thugee sect with Yoga? Even the word yogi means different in modern day india vs the west let alone a couple of 100 years ago
I’m fact-checking a manuscript that cites this post and I’d like to get the source of the quotation “not only inferior but parasitic on other, worthier expressions of yoga.” The note (43) isn’t linked and I was unable to find anything on your site. If I could get this info by end of day ET on Wednesday, 2/16/22, that would be great.
It’s from Mark Singleton’s (2010) book Yoga Body (cited more directly in the text above that point in the blog). https://books.google.com/books?id=tUgBIrn5REwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
So I read all your posts on origins of yoga and after reading it all I can say this is the height of cultural appropriation of yoga that I have ever seen in my life where you have gone as far to the point where you are trying to prove that practice of yoga that you do didn’t originated from other cultures.
First, about the ancient Egypt part, I don’t have a lot of information so I wouldn’t comment on it.
But as I have spent the first 25yrs of my life in India, and have been practicing Yoga from last 10yrs ( the actual yoga) I can definitely comment on that.
Firstly, the proof that you are looking for from the last 5000 to 2500 years is because you are looking for written texts and Hinduism has always been an oral culture. All the knowledge and everything in Hindu culture used to be passed down as oral knowledge from generations to generations and it wasn’t until very late that it was actually complied into written texts.
Secondly, the artifacts that you are saying were found that has the shiva’s image those are not the only proofs of yoga’s origin in India. You should actually try going to the country and meeting some people who practice hinduism and this old tradition rather than making claims about its origins sitting here based on some other text written by white people like yourself.
Thirdly, you are saying the ‘modern’ yoga was constructed by Indian people after the British rule because physical exercise and gymnastics was popular and they made it into just the asana yoga for that purpose is completely untrue.
As yoga was banned by the british in India during colonization and it wasn’t the only thing that was banned. If you don’t know a country’s history who shouldn’t just be saying things based on stuff written by the people of the dominant culture. And yoga wasn’t banned in india because hathi yogi’s were associated with anything that you have mentioned above. And there’s nothing called modern yoga, that’s just the yoga white people are teaching in western countries. If you go to India, till this day it’s no where ever taught as a physical exercise or just as asanas or as you like to call it ‘Modern Yoga’. It’s always taught in it’s full glory as it’s supposed to be.
So stop appropriating other cultures and trying to prove that you are not doing it.
Anybody can practice yoga regardless of culture, race or country but with the proper technique of how it’s supposed to be and not a made up version of white people that doesn’t know anything other than focusing on the physical body.
Thanks for sharing. I actually agree with everything you have said here, the point of this post is just to speak to the fact that tracing the origins of yoga can be difficult and is limited based on the records and artifacts that we have access to. Cultural appropriation is a big issue in yoga, and it’s important for practitioners to seek out deeper knowledge about the practice beyond just the modernized and appropriated forms of asana that have become popular.